Accounts Regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) are “Mutawatir”
What Does “Mutawatir” Mean?
It is a fact agreed by almost all Islamic scholars that the hadiths reported regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) are “mutawatir,” or absolutely trustworthy. However, we first need to clarify just what “absolutely trustworthy” means. As we briefly described in the “Introduction” section, according to hadith scholars, if a report has been handed down by several people and if it is technically impossible because of their circumstances for these individuals to have come together to invent the account, then that account is known as “Mutawatir.” Mutawatir accounts are known as “tawatur.”
In one source the word “tawatur” is defined as follows:
The meaning of the word “mutawatir” is set out as follows in various other sources:
MUTAWATIR HADITH: A hadith regarding which a group of narrators could not have combined in a lie, which they have transmitted in every generation from a community like themselves, and based on something heard or seen.
It expresses certain information, its fulfillment is essential, its denial implies blasphemy, and it is beyond questioning or criticism.
Mutawatir in wording: A hadith whose words are the same in all accounts. They are “so few that they almost do not exist”. An example is, “Man kadhaba alayya …” When one says, “mutawatir hadith” without being put down on record, it is perceived as “mutawatir according to the wording.”
Mutawatir in meaning: Provisions expressed in different words but with a common point of agreement among them and narrated in such a way as to bear the conditions necessary to bear a “common meaning.” One mutawatir form emerging from a hadith with up to 100 different verbal forms is that the Prophet of Allah (saas) “prayed while lifting his hands.” (Ismail Lutfi Cakan, “Forms of the Hadith” [Hadis Usulü], IFAV, Istanbul 1993, p. 105-150)
Accounts By Scholars That the Hadiths Regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) Are Mutawatir
The views of various scholars on this subject are set out below:
Rasul Al-Husayn Al-Barzanji
The existence of Hazrat Mahdi (as) and his appearance in the End Times, that he will be descended from the family of our Prophet (saas) and from the sons of Fatima (ra) are described in hadiths that attain the status of being tawatur, and it is meaningless to deny these hadiths … In true and clear hadiths that go beyond the degree of tawatur , it is proven that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will be descended from the line of Fatima, that he will appear before the world comes to an end, that he will bring justice and sovereignty to a world filled with cruelty and injustice, that the Prophet Jesus (as) will descend from the sky in his time and will perform the prayer under his leadership. (al-Barzanji, Al-Isha’ah li-ashrat al-sa’ah, p. 305)
Ala Al-Din Ali Ibn Husam Muttaqi Al-Hindi
May the mercy of Allah be upon you, there is no doubt about the existence of the Mahdi (as). It has been proven with three hundred hadiths and works, or even more. (Jasim al-Muhalhil, al-Burhan, Vol. I, p. 339)
Abd Al-Muhsin Ibn Hamad Al-Abbad
Every Muslim must believe in and affirm the unseen knowledge imparted by the Prophet (saas), particularly the prognostication with regard to the appearance of Hazrat Mahdi (as) and the antichrist. In the face of the majority of the written proofs regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) being true, it is impossible to consider these as inconsistent. Only the ignorant, those at war with the truth or those unable to examine their written proofs deny this. The fact is that affirming those hadiths is part of believing in our beloved Prophet (saas). Because accepting his words is a necessary part of believing in him. And the unseen belief in which Allah praises believers in the Qur’an (Surat Al-Baqara, 2-4) is the same as faith itself. (Dr. Abd al-Muhsin ibn Hamad al-Abbad, “Majallat al-Jamiah-al-Islamiyya, Year 1, No. 3, pp. 624-627)
Muhammad Nasiruddin Al Albani
The essence of the matter is that believing in Hazrat Mahdi (as) is a fundamental belief based on tawatur hadiths transmitted from the Prophet (saas), and belief in this is obligatory. Because under the decree of Allah (Surat Al-Baqara, 2-4), belief in the unseen revealed is a component of faith as one of the features of those having fear of Allah. None but the ignorant deny this. I beseech Allah to die in this belief, regarded as true in the Book and the Sunnah. (Muhammad Nasiruddin Al Albani, “Majallat al-Tamaddun al-Islami, No. 22, p. 646)
Shamsuddin Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Saffarani
One of the greatest portents of the Day of Judgment is the appearance of an individual described in hadiths of a certainty exceeding the degree of tawatur. He is the last of the imams. In the same way that there will be no prophets after the Prophet (saas), so there will be no imam after him. This imam is descended from the sons of Fatima.
Many scholars of the hadiths have agreed that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will be descended from the Prophet (saas), and it is unseemly to turn one’s back on such a mutawatir subject. According to the belief of the people of truth, Hazrat Mahdi (as) is independent of Jesus the Messiah. Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear before the Messiah. This matter has become so widespread among scholars of the Sunnah as to be regarded as one of their beliefs. (Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad Safarani, Lawami’ al-Anwar al-Bahiyya,,” Vol. 2, pp. 74, 76,86)
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Jafar Idrisi Al-Katani
… There are so many hadiths concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as) that they have reached tawatur status and it is inappropriate to reject these… Were I not afraid it would be long, I would collect all the hadiths I know here. (Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Jafar Idrisi al-Katani, “Nadhem al- Mutanathir Fi al-Hadith al-Mutawatir,” pp. 145 and 146)
Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Al-Ghumari
… Belief in the appearance of Hazrat Mahdi (as) is obligatory, belief in this is essential to affirm the decree of the Prophet (saas). Indeed, this matter has been recorded and proven in the books of Alh al-Sunnah. (Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Ghumari, Ibraz al-Wahm al-Maknun, pp. 3, 4)
Hasanayn Muhammad Makhluf Al-Misri
We advise Muslims to trust in reliable hadiths and fully believe that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear in the End Times. Because those who say the opposite in fact have no religious knowledge nor any belief in the hadiths. (Hasanayn Muhammad al-Makhluf al-Misri, “al-Syahid al-Basher Yatahadda al-Mahdi al-Muntadhar,” Introduction to the book)
Abu Al-Hasan Muhammad Ibn Al-Husain Aburi
Hadiths relating the appearance of Hazrat Mahdi (as) have been reported from various narrators. These hadiths emphasize that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will be from the line of the Prophet (saas), will rule for seven years and fill the world with justice, that the Messiah will appear and help him eliminate the tribulation (fitnah) of the antichrist, and that as Hazrat Mahdi (as) leads the prayer (salat) the Prophet Jesus (as) will perform it behind him.” (Abu Abdullah al-Qurtubi, at-Tadhkirah, p. 710)
Abu Muhammad Al-Hasan Ibn Ali Al-Barbahari Al-Hanbali
… And believing that Jesus son of Maryam will descend from the sky, will eliminate the tribulation (fitnah) of the antichrist, and will perform the prayer behind Kaim, of the sons of Muhammad… (Qasim Muhalhil, al-Burhan, Vol. I, p. 426)
Researchers have shown no disagreement that in the End Times there will be a successor descended from the Prophet (saas). It is unanimously agreed by all that this leader will be none other than he who is known as the Mahdi (as). Accordingly, we believe in the successor [spiritual leader] with these features revealed as coming in the future and intend to be among his supporters when he manifests himself. We beseech Allah to assist us in this intent.” (Prof. Said Hawwa, al-Aqaid al-Islamiya,” Vol. 2, pp. 1021-1026)
Muhammad Ibn Ali Ash-Shawkani
… There is no doubt that these hadiths are mutawatir, provisions of the decree of the Prophet (saas). Because there can be no questioning this subject and individual opinions are invalid… Accordingly, since the accounts regarding the antichrist and the Messiah are mutawatir, so those regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) are mutawatir. (Al-Muhib ibn Salih al-Buraim, “Iqdud Durar fi Akhbar al-Muntadhar,” pp. 14 and 15)
Sheikh Hasan Adwi Hamzawi
The hadiths regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) have passed the measure of being tawatur, and there is no significance in denying them. (Mashariq’ al-Anwar, Vol. 2, p. 115)
Siddiq Khan Al-Qanuji
The hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi (as) from the sons of Fatima are more than tawatur. They are to be found in the books “Sunan” and “Musnad” and “Mu’jam.” (Qanuji, “al-Iza’a …,” p. 94)
All the hadiths related by our Prophet (saas) about Hazrat Mahdi (as) stating that someone with matching name and personal traits will appear in the End Times and will fill the world with justice, are reliable. (Ibn Taymiyyah, Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah, Vol. IV, p. 291)
In accounts relating that hadiths concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as), the antichrist and the Messiah have attained the degree of tawatur, there are no points giving rise to any doubt on the part of people with a knowledge of the hadiths. Some commentators have doubts about some hadiths on this subject, despite admitting that belief in the portents of the Judgment Day is obligatory. But this indicates that they do not possess deep knowledge of the science of the hadiths, and nothing else. (Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari, Nazrah `Aabirah fee Mazaa`im Man Yunkiru Nuzool `Isa Qabla al-Akhirah , p. 49)
Muhammad Ibn Hasan Al-Hasnawi
In his work (Manaqib ash-Shafi) Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Hasnawi says: on the subject of the Mahdi, the hadiths narrated by our Prophet (saas) have tawatur status … It is stated that he will be descended from the Prophet… (Al-Barzanji, Al-Isha’ah li-ashrat al-sa’ah)
The Requirement of Believing Mutawatir Hadiths According to the Ahl Al-Sunnah Belief
Many Islamic scholars have emphasized the obligation to believe mutawatir hadiths and the importance in the faith of mutawatir reports. Below are cited the views of various Islamic scholars on this subject:
Shihabuddin Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani
“Tawatur is not one of the subjects of the isnad (chain of transmission accompanying each hadith). Because the isnad reveals whether or not a hadith is true by examining the identity and qualities of the narrator. Yet the narrators of a mutawatir report are not to be questioned, and belief in a mutawatir hadith is obligatory, without questioning it.” (Dr. Subhi Salih, Ulum al-hadith pp. 151 and 152)
Muhammad Jamal Al-Din Al-Qasimi Al-Dimashqi
“Know that a hadith narrated by a number of people whose truth is proven is ‘mutawatir’. In other words, there is no possibility of these people cooperating to lie in all classes of narration… These hadiths must be adhered to without entering into debate concerning the narrators. (Muhammad Jamal Al-Din al-Qasimi al-Dimashqi, “Qawaid al-Tahdith, min Funun Mushthalah al-Hadith,” p. 151)
Nur Ad-Din Itr
“Conditions such as justice or truth sought in the narrators of Reliable or Fair hadiths are not sought in the narrators of “mutawatir” hadiths. Because the number of narrators of these hadiths is so great that it is not rationally possible for them to have come together to fabricate them. For that reason, hadith scholars do not take mutawatir hadiths as a subject for inquiry. In their view, the only subject for investigation is the truth or validity of a hadith. Yet there is no such need in the case of mutawatir hadiths… These narrators consist of so many people as to obtain absolute certainty. This is a natural and manifest phenomenon.” ( Dr. Nur ad-Din Itr,, Manhaj al-Naqd fi Ulum al-Hadith, p. 405)
Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad Ibn Jafar Al-Idrisi Al-Katani
“A report the narrators of which cannot normally have cooperated in falsehood in the beginning, middle or end of which, is ‘mutawatir.’… Hadith scholars do not insist that the narrators of mutawatir hadiths have integrity, or even be Muslim. In the same way that they need not be adult, have integrity or be Muslims, so there is no need for them to be living. It is lawful for them to be non-believers, impious or not to have reached adulthood. Neither is there any stipulation that they bear a specific title.” (Katani, Nadhem al-Mutanathir Fi al-Hadith al-Mutwatir, pp. 5,6,9)
Abu’s-Sadat Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Abu Shahba
“There is no need for the narrator of mutawatir hadiths to have integrity or even be a Muslim. Because the criterion for the acceptability of mutawatir status is the large number of narrators. Indeed, if the population of a city report that an event took place, absolutely certain knowledge can be obtained from their words.” (Dr. Abu’s-Sadat Muhammad ibn Muhammad Abu Shahba, “al-Wasit fi Ulum wa Mustalah Al-Hadith, p. 190)
“There are two types of report: Mutawatir and Ahad … A mutawatir report is one transmitted from one group that cannot have combined in a lie to another group like itself, and the two sides (the first stratum and last stratum) and those in the middle (between the two) are equal. This crowd report something not imagined but perceived with the senses, and absolute certainty is attained through that report. The view on which the majority of investigators are agreed is that tawatur status cannot be restricted by a specific number.” (Al-Jazairi, Tawjih an-Nazar, p. 33)
Ahl Al-Sunnah Scholars Who Have Ruled That Rejection of Mutawatir Hadiths is Equivalent to Denial
We have seen from the explanations given by Ahl al-Sunnah scholars we have been looking at that there are mutawatir hadiths regarding a holy individual known as Hazrat Mahdi (as) and descended from our Prophet (saas) who will appear in the End Times. We have also seen that it is obligatory to believe in these accounts, which cannot rationally or logically be groundless or lies.
That being the case, some Islamic scholars have stated that, because of their absolutely certain status, denying mutawatir hadiths is equivalent to denying the Prophet (saas) and have unequivocally ruled that this is blasphemy. Some accounts by such scholars read as follows:
Know that: As unanimously stated, whoever, by word or deed, denies [mutawatir hadiths] is a blasphemer, unless he knows proof, and leaves the sphere of Islam; they will be grouped with Jews, Christians and groups chosen by Allah. (Abdul al-Ghani al-Haq, “Hujjiyat al- Sunnah, p. 270, from The Key to Paradise)
Abu Al-Fadl Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Al-Idrisi
“…Because as a requirement of the decision taken by scholars, after it has been proved that the hadiths transmitted from our Prophet (saas) are mutawatir, he who denies them is a blasphemer unless he can show an acceptable justification of his denial. (Abu al-Fadl Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad al-Idrisi, “The Awaited Mahdi,” pp. 94, 95)
In hadiths reported by reliable narrators the Prophet (saas) has imparted the glad tidings that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear in the End Times, as well as his titles and the signs of his appearance… It is stated by the Prophet (saas) that whoever denies the promised Mahdi (as) or regards him as untrue is a blasphemer. (Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman, Vol. 2, pp. 865-876)
The following two hadiths are of such a nature as to confirm the rule imposed by these scholars:
“He who denies the emergence of Hazrat Mahdi (as) denies the revelation to Muhammad…”
“…he who denies Hazrat Mahdi (as) is without doubt a blasphemer.”
The Ahl-Al Sunnah sources that transmitted these hadiths are, in order:
2- Abu Bakr ibn Haythami (dec. H. 279), Jam al-Ahadith al-Warida fi al-Mahdi.
3- Abu al Bakr Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Kalabazi Bukhari (dec. 380), Ma’ani al-Akhbar.
4- Abu Qasim Abdurrahman al-Suhayli (dec. 581), Ravd al-Anf, Sharh al-Sira, Vol. 2, p. 431. (narrated by Malik ibn Anas from Muhammad ibn Munkadir from Jabir).
5- Yusuf ibn Yahya Maqdisi al-Shafi (dec. 685), Iqd al-Durar fi Akhbar al-Mahdi al-Muntadhar, p. 157, al-Askafi, Fawaid al-Akhbar and Sharah al-Sirah from Abu al-Qasim al-Suhayli.
6- Sheikh Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Hamwini (dec. 730), Fara’id al-Simtayn, Vol. 2, p. 337, No. 585, Maani al-Akhbar from Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ibrahim.
7- Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (dec. 852), Lisan al-Mizan, Vol. 4, p. 147, Egyptian edition; p. 130, Haydarabad edition, Maan al-Akhbar.
8- As-Suyuti (dec. 911), al-Arf al-Wardi fi Akhbar al-Mahdi, p. 161, from Fawaid al-Akhbar.
9- Ibn Hajar al-Makki ash-Shafi (dec. 974), Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi `Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 56, copy in a manuscript in the Zahiriye Library in Damascus and in the Ayatullah Marashi Library in Qum, (transmitted from Fawaid al-Akhbar and Sharh as-Sira).
10- Ibn Hajar al-Makki, al-Fatawa al-Hadith, p. 37.
11- al-Muttaqi al-Hindi (dec. 975), Al-Burhan fi Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman.
12- Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ahmad Saffarini al-Hanbali (dec. 1188), Lawami’ al-Anwar al-Bahiyya, Vol. 2, chapter titled «al-Faidah al-Hamisa» concerning the Mahdi; from Hafiz Askafi. (The reliability of the narrator Jabir ibn Abdullah is praised.)
13- Sulayman al- Qunduzi (dec. 1294), Yanabi’ al-Mawadda, Beginning of 78th chapter, transmitted from Jabir ibn Abdullah al-Ansari.
14- Sayyid Muhammad Sıddiq Qanuji al-Bukhari (dec. 1307), al-Iza’a Li Ma Qâne wa Mâ Yaqun al-Bayna Yaday -as-Sa’eh, p. 137, fromJam al-Ahadith al-Warida fi al-Mahdi from Ibn Haythami and Fawaid al-Akhbar from Askafi.
15- Abu al-Fadl Abd Allah ibn Muhammad Siddiq (dec. 1308), Al-Mahdi al-Muntadhar, p. 94 and from Fawaid al-Akhbar.
Some Examples of Fatwas Issued on the Subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as)
As we have seen above, the hadiths regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) possess a tawatur level of trustworthiness, leaving no room for doubt and revealing the obligation for belief on the matter. One fatwa on the subject issued by the «Rabitat al-Alam al-Islami« (Committee of the Islamic World) headed by Sheikh Muntasir al-Katani and signed by Sheikh Muhammad al-Qazzaz [dated 23 Shawwal 1396 (17.10.1976)] of the Islamic Law Board which is made up of eminent religious scholars reads:
“… Many companions have narrated hadiths from the Prophet (saas) regarding the Mahdi. I know some 20, such as Uthman ibn Affan, Ali ibn Abu Talib and Ummu Salama, and many other accounts have been narrated from them. In addition, there are decrees from companions with the force of the word of the Prophet (saas). There can be no interpretation and no different opinion on this subject. Such hadiths on this subject have been recorded in Sunan Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ibn Asakir’s Tarikh Dimashqi [History of Damascus] and other books.
Special books have also been written on the subject of the Mahdi (as): “Akhbar al-Mahdi,” “The Book of Abu Nuaim,” “al-Wahm al-Maknun” and others … Previous and contemporary eminent figures have agreed that hadiths regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) enjoy tawatur status: as stated in al-Sakhawi’s “Fath al-Mugeeth,” Ibni Tamiyya’s “Fatawa” and Abu al-Abbas al-Maghrib’s “al-Wahm al-Maknun”…
Commentators and experts on the hadiths are agreed that hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi (as) enjoy tawatur status. In conclusion, belief that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear is obligatory. It is included among the beliefs of the community and people of the Sunnah. No other Muslim than those ignorant of the Sunnah and heretics can deny this belief.” (Muhammad Mahdi al-Khorasan, “Introduction to al-Bayan fi Akhbar – Sahibuzzaman” pp. 76-79)
In the same way, Fatwa No. 2844 on Hazrat Mahdi (as) by scholars including Sheikh Abd al-Aziz ibn Baaz, Sheikh Abd ar-Razzaq Afishi, Sheikh Abdullah ibn Saud and Sheikh Abd Allah ibn Ghadyan from the “The Permanent Committee of Academic Research and Fatwa,” which speaks on Islamic matters on a global scale, reads:
“The accounts proving that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear are many, and many leading hadith scholars have reported these in documents. Authorities such as Abu al-Hasan Al-Aburi, Allama Safarani and Allame ash-Shawkani have said that these hadiths are mutawatir according to the meaning. It is inappropriate to regard anyone else than the person the signs of whom have been set out in the decrees of the Prophet (saas) as the Mahdi (as).”
The Sources of the Hadiths About Hazrat Mahdi (as)
Hadiths regarding the portents of the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as), his features and the events that will happen in the time of Hazrat Mahdi (as) are conveyed in many trustworthy sources of hadith. Some of these sources are as follows:
|Tirmidhi in Sunan||
|Abu Dawud in Sunan||
|Ibn Majah in Sunan||
|Ahmad bin Hanbal in Musnad||
|Abd al-Razzak ibn Hammam in Al-Musannaf||
|Ibn Abu Shayh in Al-Musannaf||
|Ibn Hibban in Sahih||
|Haythami in Zawaid||
|Suyuti in Al-Jami al-Saghir||
|Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi in Kanz al-Ummal||
|Al-Haqim in Mustadraq||
|Al-Firdaws in Daylami||
|Al-Daraqutni in Sunan||
In these sources there are 159 trustworthy hadiths regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Besides, the following great Islamic scholars included trustworthy hadiths in their works.
Ibn Qasir →3 hadiths, Al-Busuri →2 hadiths, Zahabi →5 hadiths, Munzuri →1 hadith, Azimabadi →6 hadiths, Albani →6 hadiths.
These are only a portion of the trustworthy hadiths regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as). Apart from these there are many other trustworthy hadiths and explanations regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Ahl-Al Sunnah Sources Published About Hazrat Mahdi (As)
A great many Islamic scholars, scholars of the hadiths, scholars of different schools and historians of Islam have written dozens of books and treatises about Hazrat Mahdi (as). They have revealed, with full supporting evidence, that belief in Hazrat Mahdi (as) is one of the obligations of the Islamic faith. Some scholars have devoted separate sections to the subject of Mahdism in their works and have even considered the subject in greater depth in separate books written about Hazrat Mahdi (as). Many of these sections have been published in book form and many others have yet to be published.
Below is a list containing brief information about some of the Ahl Al-Sunnah sources that deal with the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as). The works are set out according to their date of composition. This list alone is enough to show what sound and deep-rooted foundations and what reliable and accurate information the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as) is based on in Islam:
Abu Bakr Abd ar-Razzak ibn Hammam ibn Nafi’ as-San’ani al-Yemeni (Hijri 126-211)
He is a famous hadith scholar from Yemen’s al-San’A who learned 17,000 hadiths off by heart, and Bukhari learned hadiths from him.
Zahabi says the following with regard to his work: “Many hadith scholars have accepted his reliability, hadiths from him are narrated in books of trustworthy hadiths, and he is one of the known sources of knowledge.”
Ibn Khallikan says: “In his time, Sufyan ibn Uyaynah, Ahmad Ibn Hanbali and many Islamic scholars related hadiths from him.”
Sunan ibn Majah
Muhammad ibn Yazid ibn Majah al-Rabi al-Qazwini (Hijri 209-273)
Patronymic: Abu Abdullah
His most famous book is the two-volume Sunan al-Mustafa, known as the Sunan Ibn Majah. It is one of the sources of hadiths known as the Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books) of the People of the Sunnah. One chapter of that part of the book known as “al-Fitan” related hadiths concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Sunan Abu Dawud
Abu Dawud, Sulayman ibn Ash’asth al-Azadi, Al-Sijistani (Hijri 202-275 )
Abu Dawud is the author of the “Sunan Abu Dawud” from the Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books), one of his best-known works.
In this collected work, 13 hadiths regarding the features of Hazrat Mahdi (as), the portents of his appearance, and what he will do after his coming are related in the “Kitab al-Mahdi” section.
Abu Isa Muhammed ibn Isa ibn Sawrah ibn Musa ibn al-Dhahhak al-Sulami al-Tirmidhi (Hijri 209-297)
A famed hadith scholar and imam, he attained fame through his preservation of the hadiths. He was born in the village of Bagh by the city of “Termez” to the east of the River Ceyhan, visited such places as Khorasan, Iraq and Hijaz in order to study the hadiths, was taught by Mohammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari and was also instructed together with various other hadith scholars, benefiting from Ahmad ibn Hanbali, ad-Darimi and third century scholars.
He also wrote books about science of hadith, history and the hadiths. These include the books al-Shama’il, al-`Ilal, at-Tarih and Jami’ al-Sahih. This last text in particular enjoys great value and fame among Ahl Al-Sunnah. It is also one of the Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books). A great many commentaries have been written about this book. Hadiths regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) are related in the fourth volume of the Sunan.
Kitab al-Badi wa at-Tarikh
Abu Zayd Ahmad Ibn Sahl al-Balkhi
This book is described to belong to the collector in question in a specimen in the Damat Ibrahim Pasha Library in Istanbul and in Ibn al-Wardi’s book “Kharidat al-Ajaib wa Faridatal-Gharaib” (The Pearl of Wonders and the Uniqueness of Things Strange). In Volume 1, page 227, of his Kashf al-Zunun, Haji Khalfah states that Abu Zayd was the compiler of the book. In their chronicles and biographies Abu Zayd was regarded as the most eminent by historians, and was regarded as a most eminent figure in the fields of religion, the Law of Allah, philosophy, literature and other fields. However, the French orientalist Clamon Hewar concludes in his research that the compiler of the book was the historian Mutahhar ibn Takhir al-Mukaddas. Because according to various biographical sources, Abu Zayd died in Hijri 322 or 340. Yet the date of compilation of the book is recorded as Hijri 355. In his work “Kashf al-zunun,” Haji Khalfah also gave that as the date of Abu Zayd’s death.
But al-Mukaddas’ author is unknown to us too. After being printed in France in six volumes with a commentary through the work of the orientalist Clamon Hewar between 1899 and 1919, the book was then published in Baghdad. One part has still not been published.
Whoever the compiler of the book may have been, a large part of the book is devoted to Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Al-Mu’jam al- Kabeer
Abu al-Qasim Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Tabarani (Hijri 260-360)
A great scholar and memoriser of hadiths. He was born in the Tiberias (Tabariyyah) district of Damascus, visited Damascus, Hijaz, Iraq, Egypt and Yemen to study the hadiths and later died in Isfahan at the age of 100.
This book, the most important of his works, was published by the Iraqi Foundations Ministry in 10 volumes. The Al-Mu’jam al-Awsat and the Al-Mu’jam as-Saghir were published in two volumes in Egypt and Delhi. The hadiths regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) are considered in Volume 10. There are also other hadiths concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as) in other volumes.
Ma’alim al-Sunan Sharh Kitab Sunan Abu Dawud
Abu Sulaiman Hamd ibn Muhammad al-Khatabi al-Busti (Hijri 319-388)
He was born and died in the Best region, affiliated to Kabul in Afghanistan. He was trained in the fields of the hadiths, canonical law, literature and lexicography. Zahabi describes him as a trustworthy scholar. He narrates hadiths concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as) in one section of this book.
Husayn ibn Mas’ud Shafi (Hijri 436-510 or 516)
“He adopted the pen name Muhyi’s Sunnah (reviver of the Prophetic example).”
Born in the village of Bag, affiliated to the city of Herat in Afghanistan he died in the city of Khorasan Rey.
Ibn-i Khallikan describes him as an ocean of knowledge. Published in Egypt in Hijri 1318, one chapter of his book is devoted to hadiths concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Jami’ al-Usul min al-Hadith al-Rasul
Abu Saadet al-Mubarak ibn Muhammad, known as Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari (Hijri 544-606)
The famous historian, a brother of Ibn Asir, trained in Qur’anic commentary, canonical law, the hadiths, syntax and lexicography. Born on the island of Ibn al-Omar, he settled in the city of Mosul, where he eventually died. He compiled this book, the most important of his works, from the Al-Kutub As-Sittah (Six Books), devoting part of it, published in Beirut in 13 volumes, to the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Al- Futuhat al-Makkiyya
Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abdullah al-Tai al-Hatimi, known as Muhyiddin ibn Arabi and Sheikh Aqbar (Hijri 560-638)
The best-known scholar. He is said to have written some 400 treatises and books on such subjects as philosophy, the words of the Scriptures, commentary, literature and poetry. Born in the city of Murcia in Andalusia, he lived and died in Dimashq.
He documented this subject with rational and reported evidence in the third volume of the chapter about Hazrat Mahdi (as) in this work.
Matalib as-Sa’wul fi Manaqib al-Rasul
Muhammad ibn Talhah, ash-Shafii (Hijri 582-652)
One of the greatest hadith scholars, he achieved fame in such spheres as the application of canonical law and literature. Originally from Nusaybin, he later settled in Dimashq and Halab (Aleppo), where he died. This book was first lithographically printed in Hijri 1287, in 91 pages, together with Ibn al-Jawzi’s“Tadhkirat al-Khawass al-‘Ummah“, and subsequently reprinted in Najaf.
The 12th section of this book with the headline, “Muhammad Ibn Hasan al-Ashkar al-Mahdi: The Twelveth Imam”
Tadhkirat al-Khawass al-‘Ummah
Sibt ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanafi al-Dimashqi (Hijri 581-654)
A famous hadithic scholar and memoriser of hadiths who contributed to the sciences of canonical law, commentary, history and the hadiths. Born in Baghdad, he died in Dimashq. One of his works, Al-Fiqh ‘Ala Al-Madhahib al-Arba (Isar al-Insaf fi Asar al-Hilaf), was translated into Turkish and reprinted several times.
The above-mentioned work contains the virtues and attributes of the twelve imams. The final chapter concerns Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Sharh al-Nahj al-Balagah
Ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Mu’tazili (Hijri 586-655)
A well-known figure in the fields of history and literature, as well as of other spheres. Born in Medayin, he lived in Baghdad and served as scribe to the Abbasid caliphs.
His best-known work, the Nahj al-Balagha compilation, is regarded as the most extensive compilation on the subject after Allame Hoi’s 22-volume Nahj al-Balaghah. It was reprinted several times in Egypt, Beirut and Iran.
The book devotes one chapter to Hazrat Ali’s (ra) comments regarding the End Times as well as considerable space in other chapters to views concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Mukhtasar Sunan Abu Dawud
Abdul Azim al-Munzir ash-Shafi (Hijri 581-656)
A leading scholar in the fields of canon law, history, memorising the hadiths and knowledge thereof. Volume 6 of this book, which occupies an important place among his works, devotes considerable space to subjects concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abu Bakr ibn Faraj al-Ansari al-Qurtubi (dec. Hijri 671)
One of the great Qur’anic commentators of the Maliki school. Al-Zaraq has this to say about him: One of the devout, he was born in Qurtuba (Cordoba) from where he migrated to the East and settled in the region of Ibn Hasib, to the north of the Egyptian town of Asyut, where he died.
The “Tafsir al-Jami’ li-Ahkam al-Qur’an,” one of his works, was published in 20 volumes and is known as the Qurtubi Commentary. The work indicated above was published in Egypt under the name of the “At-Tadhkirah Fih Alil Mawta Wal-Akhira”. One chapter of the second volume is devoted to Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Ibn Khallikan (Hijri 608-681)
Originally from Irbil, Iraq he went to Egypt from where he studied in Damascus, serving as a qadi or religious judge for a time. He was a great student of history and literature.
This book is regarded by scholars and researchers as one of the most accurate, reliable and best known biographies. A short chapter in Volume 4 is devoted to Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Muhibbuddin Ahmad ibn Abdullah at-Tabari (Hijri 615-694)
Born and died in Mecca. He was a great hadith scholar, a sheikh in the Shafii school and a mufti of Hijaz. He wrote various important works on the hadiths and canon law.
In this book which was published in Egypt in Hijri 1350, a section about the features of Ahl al-Bayt is devoted to Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Ibrahim ibn Saad al-din al-Hamawaini (Hijri 644-732)
A memoriser of the hadiths and Ahl al-Sunnah scholar. Al-Zahabi refers to him in Volume 4 of his “Tadhkira” as follows: “He is a leading imam of the hadiths, a pride of Islam and saintlike. He was instrumental in the conversion of the Sultan Gazan into Islam.”
In his “al-Durar al-Kamina,” Ibn al-Hajar al-Asqalani corroborates Zahabi’s words and adds that most Ahl Al-Sunnah hadith scholars sought his permission to relate hadiths.
This work was published in Beirut in Hijri 1398 and previously in Lahore.
The book in question is devoted to the virtues of Hazrat Zahra (ra) and Hazrat Ali (ra) and their children, while one chapter is devoted to the appearance and struggle of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Wali ad-Din Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Khatib al-Tabrizi (dec. Hijri 741)
A great hadithic scholar. Part of the third volume of this book is devoted to the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Kharidat al-Ajaib wa Faridat al-Gharaib
Sirajuddin Omar ibn Muzaffar ash-Shafi Ibn al-Wardi (dec. Hijri 749 )
Born in the Numan region of Syria he produced works dealing with canonical law, literature, poetry, lexicography, syntax and history and also served as a religious judge.
He died in the Syrian city of Halab (Aleppo). One of his works dealing with the portents of the Judgment Day and including a chapter on Hazrat Mahdi (as) is that cited above.
Al-Manar al-Munif fi al-Sahih wa al-Dha’if
Compiled by: Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr; well-known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya. (Hijri 691-751)
One of the great scholars of the Hanbali school. Because he had studied canon law with Ibn Taymiyyah and shared his opinions he was imprisoned in Dimashq castle but released on Ibn Taymiyyah’s death.
Chapter 50 of this book deals with the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Kitab al-Nihaya (al-Fitan wa al-Malahim)
Abul al-Fida Ismail ibn Umar; famous as Ibn Kathir (Hijri 701-774)
Hadith scholar, historian, commentator and expounder of canon law. He was born in the Basra region of Iraq. In Hijri 706 he settled in Dimashq where he continued his studies. This book of his was printed in Egypt and Beirut. The hadiths regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) considered in Volume 1 of this book under the heading “Hazrat Mahdi (as) Who Will Appear in the End Times.”
Sayyid Ali ibn Shahab ibn Muhammad al-Husayn (Hijri 714-786)
A scholar from Khorasan. He settled in Kashmir and converted the majority of the people of the region to Islam as a result of his tireless work. He produced several works in Arabic and Persian. This is his most famous book, first published together with Qunduzi’s Yanabi al-Muwadda by the Ahtar Publishing House in Istanbul in Hijri 1301. Hazrat Mahdi (as) is considered in the chapter “The Number of the Imams, and the Mahdi Who Is One of Them.”
Sa’ad al-Din Masud ibn Umar ibn Abd Allah al-Taftazani (Hijri 712-793)
Born in the village of Taftazan, affiliated to Nesa in Khorasan, from where he settled in Saraks. He was later exiled to Samarqand by Tamburlaine, where he died, though his body was carried to Saraks and buried there.
He was one of the greatest figures in the spheres of the words of the scriptures, logic, rhetoric and Arab literature. Part of the final chapter of his two-volume work on the subject of the imams, regarded as a major reference in the science of the words of the scriptures, is devoted to Hazrat Mahdi (as).
This work was printed at the Olmandesher printing house in Istanbul in Hijri 1277 and was subsequently lithographed in Egypt.
Nuraddin Ali ibn Muhammad (known as Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki) (Hijri 784-855)
Originally from the African region of Sefaga, he was born and died in Mecca. An expounder of canon law and memoriser of hadiths from the Maliki school, many Ahl al-Sunnah scholars, such as al-Halabi, al-Samhudi, Hamzawi and al-Shablanji sought his permission to relate hadiths.
Many biographers also refer to him.
This book describes the twelve imams, and one chapter is devoted to Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Al-Arf Al-Wardi fi Akhbar Al-Mahdi
Jalal al-Din, Abd ar-Rahman ibn Kamal ad-din Muhammad al-Suyuti ash-Shafi (Hijri 849-911)
A scholar in the fields of literature and history, and an expounder of canon law expert in the hadiths. He grew up as an orphan in Cairo, being educated by local hadith experts and scholars. His biography can be found in many books of accounts and histories. There are almost no libraries in the Islamic world that do not hold works by him.
The treatise in question exists in two volumes, the “Al-Hawi lil-fatawi,” and considers the hadiths concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Aimma al-Isna Ashar
Shams al-din Muhammad ibn Tulun (Hijri 880-953)
A student of the hadiths, canon law, history and literature, also learned in medicine and the interpretation of dreams. He lived and died in Dimashk. This book, one of his most important works, deals with the lives of the 12 imams, with one chapter being set aside for subjects regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as).
The book was published by the Beirut Daru’s-Sadr publishing house in 1958.
Al-Yawagit wa al-Jawahir
Imam Abd al-wahhab ash- Sha’rani ash-Shafi (Hijri 898-973)
Born in Egypt and died in Cairo. He enjoyed great fame as an expounder of canon law, a hadithic expert and mystic.
One chapter in the second part of this two-volume work on the subject of the tenets of Islam deals with that of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Ahmad ibn Hajar al-Haytami al-Makki ash-Shafi (Hijri 909-974)
An eminent name in the fields of canon law and the hadiths, he analysed various matters regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as) in one part, “al-Fatawa al-Hadith,” of the above work.
Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi (Hijri 885-975)
Attained scholarly fame in the fields of canon law, preaching and many others. He was born in the Indian city of Burhanpur, and after a scholarly education settled in Mecca and Madina, where he continued his education with a number of scholars in the areas of mysticism, the hadiths and commentary. Returning to India, he engaged in teaching Islam and died in Mecca.
The 14-volume encyclopedic work in question is regarded as one of the main sources of hadiths. One chapter of Volume 14 is titled “Hazrat Mahdi (as) Who Will Appear in the End Times.” He also examined the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as) in another of his works, the “Talkhis al-Bayan wa al-Burhan fi Alamet al-Mahdi.”
Akhbar ad-Duwal wa-Athar al-Uwal
Ahmad ibn Yusuf ibn Ahmad al-Dimashqi (Hijri 939-1019)
He is known as Karamani.
A well-known historian. Haji Khalfah, the author of the work “Kashf al-Zunun” says of this book “I have never before seen such a book on the subject of the states in the Islamic world.”
This work considers states’ pre- and post-Islamic histories and structures. One extensive section of the book deals with the 12 imams and Hazrat Mahdi (as). The book was printed lithographically in 500 large pages in Hijri 1282 in Baghdad.
Risalat Mashrab al-Wardi
Ali ibn Sultan Muhammad Al-Qari al-Haravi (dec. Hijri 1014)
A scholar in various fields of expertise. He was born in the city of Herat in Afghanistan, later settling and dying in Mecca. Volume 5 of this five-volume work consists of hadiths regarding Hazrat Mahdi (as). Another of his works, “Risalat Mashrab al-Wardi,” is totally devoted to the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Al-Asharatul Fi Asharat Al-Sa’aa
Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Rasul ash-Shafi (Hijri 1040-1103 )
A commentator on the Qur’an, hadith scholar, student of literature and lexicographer. He travelled for studies to Baghdad, Istanbul, Damascus and Egypt, before settling in Madina, where he taught and eventually died. This book was published in 300 pages in Egypt in Hijri 1370. As can be seen from its title, it considers the portents of the End Times and the appearance and activities of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Fath al-Manan, Sharh al-Fawzi wa al-Aman
Ahmed ibn Ali Abu Al-Najah al-Hanafi (Hijri 1089-1173)
Born in one of the villages around city of Trablus (Tripoli) in Syria, he was a great scholar, poet, man of literature and memoriser of the hadiths. He set aside one chapter of this book, one of his famous works, for the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Lawaih al-Anwar al-Ilahiyya
Shamsaddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Nablus (Hijri 1114-1188)
A well-known expert in Islamic canon law from the Hanbali school, a sufi and a historian. He was born in one of the villages around the city of Nablus in Palestine and later settled in Dimashq, where he died.
This valuable work was printed in two volumes in Hijri 1324 in Egypt, and one chapter in the second volume discusses the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Muhammad ibn Ali Al-Sabban al-Misri ash-Shafi
One of the greatest Egyptian scholars, he achieved high levels of knowledge in the fields of lexicography, syntax, verse harmonics, rhetoric, logic, the life and attributes of our Prophet (saas), the hadiths, astronomy and many others.
He was born and died in the Egyptian city of Cairo. In this book he discusses the moral conduct and activities of the Prophet (saas) and his descendants, devoting one chapter to the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as). This book was lithographically printed in Egypt, together with the “Nur al-Absar.”
Sayyid Mu’min ibn Hasan al-Shabalnaji (dec. Hijri 1290)
A hadithic scholar, historian and literary figure. This book, one of his most important works, deals with the moral conduct and activities of the Prophet (saas) and his descendants. The chapter considering Hazrat Mahdi (as) is titled “The Legends of Muhammad ibn Hasan (as).” The book was lithographically printed in Cairo.
Al-Fayd Al-Qadir, Sharh Al-Jami Al-Saghir
Muhammad Abd al-Ra’uf Muhammad al-Munawi ash-Shafi (Hijri 952-1031)
An eminent hadith scholar, he trained and wrote works in such fields as the hadiths, grammar, Islamic jurisprudence and history. Volume 6 of this work contains a chapter about Hazrat Mahdi (as). It was published for the second time by the Daru’l-Maarif publishing house in Beirut in 1972.
Sheikh Hasan al-Adwi al-Misri (Hijri 1221-1303)
An expert in the words of the Scriptures, memoriser of the hadiths and Maliki school scholar, he was educated in Al-Azhar, and taught and died in Cairo. One chapter of this valuable book is devoted to Hazrat Mahdi (as). The book was published by the Ottoman Publishing House in Hijri 1307.
Al-Iza’a Lima Kana Wa Ma Yakunu
Sayyid Muhammad Sıddiq Khan ibn Hasan al-Qanuji (Hijri 1248-1307)
Born in the Indian town of Qanuj he was educated in Delhi, producing various works in the spheres of Islamic learning in Hindu, Farsi and Arabic. His Arabic books were published in Cairo and Beirut. This book includes the subject of the “Strife before The Judgment Day and the portents of the End Times,” with one chapter being devoted to the matter of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
This book was first published in India in Hijri 1293, with the second edition being published in Egypt by the al-Saudi publishing house in Hijri 1379.
Hayraddin Numan al-Alusi al-Hanafi (Hijri 1252-1217)
A preacher, expert on the Qur’an and a religious judge, he was a scholar from the Hanafi school. Reliable biographies have praised the author in such terms as, “His mind was greater than his knowledge, his knowledge was more eloquent than his prose, and his prose was sounder than his verse.”
This book was first published in Egypt in Hijri 1301, with one chapter of the first volume dealing with the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Muhammad Shams Ul Haqq al-Hindi (Hijri 1273-1329)
This individual, regarded as one of the great hadith scholars, wrote this book as an exposition of Abu Dawud’s Sunan, devoting one chapter in Volume 11 to the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Nazm al-Mutanathir min al-Hadith al-Mutawatir
Compiler: Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Jafar ibn Idris ibn Muhammad al-Fasi al-Maliki (Hijri 1274-1345)
A historian, expert in Islamic canon law and hadithic scholar. He was born and died in Morocco. This book, one of his most important works, was published in Morocco in Hijri 1328. The book states that the hadiths concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as) are absolutely trustworthy.
Compiler: Abu ‘Ali Muhammad Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Abd al-Rahim al-Mubarakfuri (Hijri 1283-1353)
Born in the Indian town of Mubarakfur, he was a great scholar who enjoyed considerable renown in the fields of Arabic, logic, philosophy, astronomy and canon law.
This book was written as a commentary on the Tirmidhi and was published in India, Cairo and Saudi Arabia. One chapter in Volume 6 is devoted to the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Nazrat fi Ahadith al-Mahdi
Muhammad al-Khidr al-Husayn al-Misri (Hijri 1292-1377)
Originally Algerian, he was born in Tunisia. He continued his education in the Tunisian Zaytuna Institute of Learning, and later taught in al-Azhar in Egypt, where he died. He wrote many works and articles. This article about Hazrat Mahdi (as) was printed in Syria in 1370 Hijri in the journal “Majallat al-Tamaddun al-Islami.”
Al-Taj al-Jami’ li al-Usul
Sheikh Mansoor Ali Nasif (dec. Hijri 1371 Hijri)
One of al-Azhar’s great scholars and professors. One chapter in Volume 5 of this book is devoted to the subject of Hazrat Mahdi (as).
Ibraz al-Wahm al-Maknun Min Kalam Ibn Khaldun
Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn as-Siddiq ash-Shafi al-Maghribi (dec. Hijri 1380)
One of the leading memorisers of the hadiths, hadith scholar and man of learning of Marrakech. This book was written as a refutation of Ibn-i Khaldun’s doubt concerning Hazrat Mahdi (as). It was published in Hijri 1347 in Damascus, by the Matbaat alt-Taraqqi.
Master, Sheikh Nasruddin al-Albani
A contemporary scholar who has written works and articles on various subjects. This article was penned as a response to questions about Hazrat Mahdi (as) in the journal “Majallat al-Tamaddun al-Islami” published in Damascus.
Akhidat al-Ahl al-Sunnah Fi al-Mahdi
Sheikh Abdul-Muhsin ibn Hamd
A teacher at the Islamic University in Madina. This article dealt with the subject of “Hazrat Mahdi (as) in the Belief of the People of the Sunnah,” and was published in the journal “Jamiat Al-Islam” in Hijri 1388, together with an affirmation by the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, ibn Baaz. In this work he revealed Ahl Al-Sunnah’s conviction about Hazrat Mahdi (as). In another article he responds to those who reject the hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi (as). That article was published in Hijri 1400 in the same journal.
Statistics Regarding the Hadith and Accounts About Hazrat Mahdi (As)
* The number of hadiths imparting the tidings of the coming of the Mahdi: 657
* The number of hadiths stating that Hazrat Mahdi (as) is from the Ahl al-Bayt, that Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) name is the same as that of the Messenger of Allah (saas) and that his patronymic is the same as his: 389
* The number of hadiths saying that Hazrat Mahdi (as) is he who most resembles the Messenger of Allah (saas): 48
* The number of hadith describing Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) face and height: 21
* The number of hadith stating that Hazrat Mahdi (as) is “one of the sons of Ali (as)”: 214
* The number of hadith stating that Hazrat Mahdi (as) is “one of the children of Hazrat Fatima”: 192
* The number of hadith saying that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will fill the world with justice: 123
* The number of hadiths saying that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will have two occultations: 10
* The number of hadiths saying that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will occult for a long time: 91
* The number of hadiths accounting for that occultation: 7
*The number of hadiths saying that people will benefit from Hazrat Mahdi (as) during the time of his occultation: 7
* The number of hadiths saying Hazrat Mahdi (as) will be long-lived: 318
*The number of hadiths saying Hazrat Mahdi (as) will be young-looking: 8
* The number of hadiths saying Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) birth will be hidden: 14
* The number of hadiths saying that Hazrat Mahdi (as) will have no oath of allegiance to any (that he will be bound to no successor or anyone else, that he will be under the influence of no idea, group, sect or other political ideology):10
* The number of hadiths saying he will intellectually defeat the deniers and cleanse the earth of ascribing partners to Allah: 19
* The number of hadiths saying Hazrat Mahdi (as) will make clear Allah’s commandments, that he will spread Islamic moral values and (spiritually) rule the world: 47
* The number of hadiths saying Hazrat Mahdi (as) will encourage people to follow the Qur’an and the Sunnah: 15
* The number of hadiths saying Hazrat Mahdi (as) will intellectually neutralize the enemies of Allah with his knowledge:4
* The number of hadiths saying Hazrat Mahdi (as) will have various Sunnah of the prophets: 23
* The number of hadiths saying Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear with our Prophet’s (saas) sword [in other words, the sacred relics of our Prophet (saas), his holy standard, sword and robe will be with Hazrat Mahdi (as)]: 7
* The number of hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) character and physical appearance: 30
* The number of hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) morals and taqwa:4
* The number of hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) justice and the spread of security in his time: 7
* The number of hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) knowledge: 5
* The number of hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) generosity and charity: 13
* The number of hadiths saying “Almighty Allah will reveal the miracle of the prophets through the hand of Hazrat Mahdi (as) and he will have their legacies:”5
*The number of hadiths saying Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear after a fierce test: 24
* The number of hadiths saying Hazrat Mahdi (as) will lead Jesus, son of Mary, in prayer: 25
*The number of hadiths describing the features of Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) coming: 12
* The number of hadiths about the situation and extent of the corruption and sin prior to the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as): 37
* The number of hadiths about some of the portents of the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as):29
* The number of hadiths about a voice from the sky calling Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) and his father’s name:27
* The number of hadiths concerning such matters as the high cost of living and increased levels of disease in the time before the coming of Hazrat Mahdi (as): 23
* The number of hadiths about the appearance of the Sufyan, the eclipse of the moon and similar matters: 38
* The number of hadiths about the emergence of the antichrist: 12
* The number of hadiths concerning where Hazrat Mahdi (as) will appear:17
* The number of hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) spiritual conquest of East and West: 12
* The number of hadiths concerning all nations will gather round Islamic moral values during the time of Hazrat Mahdi (as): 7
* The number of hadiths about treasure and minerals being extracted from underground in the time of Hazrat Mahdi (as): 10
* The number of hadiths about the abundance from the Earth and sky in the time of Hazrat Mahdi (as): 12
* The number of hadiths concerning there being 313 people alongside Hazrat Mahdi (as): 25
* The number of hadiths about the Earth being filled with justice when Hazrat Mahdi (as) appears: 129
* The number of hadiths about the return of the Prophet Jesus (as) and his praying behind Hazrat Mahdi (as): 29
* The number of hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) (physical and intellectual) neutralization of the antichrist: 6
* The number of hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) intellectual struggle against and (physical and intellectual) neutralization of the Sufyan: 2
* The number of hadiths about public works in the time of Hazrat Mahdi (as):5
* The number of hadiths about work becoming easier and minds attaining perfection in the century of Hazrat Mahdi (as):7
* The number of hadiths about the virtues of Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) companions: 14
* The number of hadiths about the strength ad might of Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) companions: 5
* The number of hadiths about the duration of Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) succession in the wake of his appearance: 18
* The number of hadiths concerning Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) food, drink and clothing: 4
* The number of hadiths about Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) calls to the people: 7
* The number of hadiths about the virtues of anticipating salvation: 23
* The number of hadiths about some of the duties of Hazrat Mahdi’s (as) followers: 54
* The number of hadiths about appreciating Hazrat Mahdi (as) and adopting him as imam (spiritual leader): 10
* The number of hadiths about the virtues of those who believe in Hazrat Mahdi (as) during the time of his occultation: 23
(As-Saafi Al-Golpaygani, Muntakhab al-Asar, pp. 15-19)